When you think about cannabis in today’s dynamically progressive era, two compounds should now come to mind – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is the one that makes people “high,” and cannabidiol (CBD), which makes people feel chilled and relaxed without any psychoactive effects. Though THC and CBD are the known compounds, many have been asking the question, “What is CBN?”
Even though CBD and THC are the main two naturally occurring chemicals found primarily in Cannabis sativa, several other phytocannabinoids make up hemp’s molecular structure – over 100 approximately.
One of these minor phytocannabinoids, particularly, is gaining attention because of its involvement in the entourage effect, and its relation to THC molecules. This cannabinoid is cannabinol, also known as CBN.
Here, we’ll discuss what is CBN, how it works with your body, the difference between CBN vs. CBD, and how you can incorporate CBN into your routine if you’re not doing so already.
What Is CBN?
Cannabinol is a cannabinoid that is created when (THC) molecules break down as hemp material matures. Through decarboxylation, in which raw cannabis is exposed to heat and oxygen for prolonged periods, THC degrades into CBN molecules.
And as hemp continues to mature, it loses more THC in exchange for CBN. Cannabinol isn’t completely non-psychoactive, but its intoxicating potency is only one-fourth of THC’s strength, so it’s mildly psychoactive.
Compared to CBD and THC, there isn’t much research surrounding CBN cannabinoids; however, it’s a compound that modern science had recognized in 1999 when the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was testing the potency loss of cannabis.
According to the UNODC study, the cannabis they tested had dropped its THC content by half of its original potency over four years. And as the THC became oxidized and exhausted, it converted to CBN.
The UNODC also discovered that THC degradation happens most during the first two years of improper cannabis storage, which established a link between THC’s conversion into the CBN and cannabis vulnerability.
As this article mentions earlier, THC turns into CBN as time progresses – meaning that the longer cannabis ages, the more CBN content it contains. It’s a strong indication that if hemp material tests are high in CBN, then it is significantly older.
Cannabinol possesses some unique qualities that make it different from the other phytocannabinoids found in cannabis. Here are the differences between CBN and THC:
- CBN is created from decarboxylated THC
- CBN isn’t non-psychoactive entirely, but its potency is only one-fourth that of THC
- CBN became recognized and tested as an indication for matured cannabis
- THC converts into more CBN as time goes on
CBN is often referred to as “the sleepy cannabinoid” due to results from rodent experiments. It’s the main characteristic that sets CBN apart from other cannabinoids. To date, most of the research regarding CBN’s sedative effects have been conducted on animals. But specific terpenes may actually cause the effect observed in these tests.
What Are Terpenes?
A terpene is a naturally produced hydrocarbon based on isoprene combinations. Together, terpenes are organic compounds created by plants that typically give them their distinct odor, flavor, and other characteristics.
And terpenoids are derivative of terpenes, which may have oxygen-based functionality or displacement. Mature cannabis, as it ages, loses its lower molecular weight of monoterpenoids and gains more sesquiterpenoids. The sleepiness researchers observed in animals is likely the result of the higher concentration of sesquiterpenoids.
When comparing CBN vs. CBD, the sleepiness factor is often misunderstood as one of the primary differences; however, CBN, by itself, does not cause this effect – neither does CBD on its own either.
CBN’s impact displayed through general observation may occur from the inclusion of terpenes:
- Terpenes are responsible for a cannabis plants’ scent, taste, and other typical features
- Terpenoids, like monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, derive from terpenes and are oxygen-based
- CBN’s sleepiness quality links to a more extensive combination of sesquiterpenoids
Similar to THC and CBD molecules, CBN cannabinoids communicate with the body by binding and activating the cannabinoid receptors within our central and peripheral nervous systems.
How Does CBN Work?
Like other cannabinoids, CBD and THC in particular, CBN also works through multiple pathways. Its functionality is possible because it can interact with the body through the endocannabinoid system (ECS).
It can attach to both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and share alternative mechanisms of action with THC. Even though CBN isn’t anywhere near as intoxicating as THC, CBN can increase THC’s euphoric effects. This synergistic response of cannabinoids boosting other cannabinoids is called the entourage effect. It’s also worth noting that the tiny amounts of CBN found in consumer hemp products cannot cause intoxication.
While CBN's effects are less known compared to CBD and THC, CBN also offers a few other beneficial uses.
What Are The Benefits Of CBN?
Unfortunately, the benefits of CBN aren’t fully understood at this time. It’s clear that CBN interacts with the ECS to modify the effects of other cannabinoids. But researchers remain uncertain about how it acts on the body on its own. For now, it’s best to regard the benefits of CBN as part of the entourage effect, where a group of phytocannabinoids work synergistically. Currently, you’ll find CBN alongside CBG and other minor cannabinoids in hemp-derived wellness products that feature high concentrations of CBD.
CBN works with the endocannabinoid system much like CBD and THC cannabinoids:
- CBN attaches to CB1 and CB2 receptors
- CBN may boost THC’s euphoria-inducing capabilities (entourage effect)
- A definitive list of CBN’s beneficial uses is currently unknown – further research is needed
Even though CBN works similarly and cooperatively with CBD and other phytocannabinoids, the two compounds differ from one another in unique ways.
What Is The Difference Between CBN and CBD?
CBN and CBD are both phytocannabinoids synthesized by cannabis plants. And while they share some similar properties as cannabinoids, they are still two unique cannabis compounds that vary significantly in origin and effects – mainly how they’re each produced and interact with the human body. But first, what is CBD exactly?
What Is CBD?
CBD, also known as cannabidiol, is a non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa. It’s the second most abundant cannabinoid produced by cannabis, and it accounts for 40 percent of the genetic structure of industrial hemp – a strain of cannabis containing less than 0.3 percent THC.
CBD does not produce any euphoric or “high” effects on its own. It works by interacting with our endocannabinoid system through the binding or communicating with CB2 cannabinoid receptors.
These receptors make up part of the ECS, and they connect to our peripheral nervous system, which are nerve fibers that stretch out to various muscles, limbs, immune cells, skin cells, and other organs.
Generally speaking, the ECS helps maintain homeostasis – the healthy stability of our mental and physical functions in response to internal or external conditions that would otherwise cause our bodies to perform less than usual. When CBD molecules attach to CB2 receptors, they transmit a signal that affects the cell, tissue, or organ associated with that particular receptor.
CBD is useful for several applications depending on the personal needs of the individual using it. However, any products containing CBD should not be used to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any disease, according to the FDA.
Hemp-based CBD products are federally legal in the United States following the enactment of the 2018 Farm Bill, which allows the manufacture and distribution of hemp-derived products as long as they contain no more than 0.3 percent THC.
How Does CBN Differ From CBD?
We discussed earlier that both compounds are phytocannabinoids that are produced from cannabis plants.
However, while CBD is typically abundant with industrial hemp and other high-CBD strains of cannabis, the amount of CBN is determined by cannabis maturity – mainly how long the THC content available was exposed to heat and oxygen.
Neither cannabinoid produces an intoxicating effect on its own, but each of them can influence the impact typically induced by THC. CBD usually reduces some of the adverse effects brought on by THC, while CBN may boost THC – leading to the sedative response that most people mistakenly credit CBN with doing individually.
And while CBD molecules primarily bind to CB2 cannabinoid receptors, CBN can attach to CB1 and CB2 connectors – even though it has a low affinity for both when compared to CBD and THC. But CBN can also work through other biological pathways outside of the ECS.
How Can I Use CBN?
Currently, it’s rare for people to find cannabis-based products that are heavy with CBN. Unlike CBD, there aren't CBN oils, capsules, or tinctures flooding the market – mainly because of the lack of research surrounding CBN, and its connection to “expired” cannabis.
But that doesn’t necessarily mean CBN is unavailable entirely.
Many hemp-based CBD oils and products are labeled either broad spectrum or full spectrum. These categories of CBD products contain a variety of terpenes, flavonoids, and other cannabinoids, including CBN, to ensure the entourage effect – though the CBN content may be relatively small.
When comparing CBN vs CBD:
- CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid that cannot produce any euphoric effects or a “high”
- High levels of CBD are in hemp plants, while CBN levels are determined by cannabis maturity
- Both cannabinoids can alter the psychoactive effects caused by THC
- CBN can bind to CB1 and CB2 receptors, while CBD attaches mainly to CB2 connector
How Does Broad Spectrum Differ From Full Spectrum?
The main difference between the two is that broad spectrum is entirely THC-free, while full spectrum may contain detectable traces of THC. And then, there is broad spectrum CBD, which includes consistent amounts of CBD, CBG, and CBN in non-THC products.
Additionally, you could also cultivate personal strains of high-CBN cannabis by allowing home-grown herbs to ripen beyond its usual freshness. But only do so in states or areas where recreational or adult-use cannabis is legal, of course.
The point being, there are options available for consuming CBN without there being any CBN-exclusive products.
If you want to know more about what is CBN or have questions about CBN vs. CBD, comment on our Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter pages. You can also learn more about the benefits of non-CBD cannabinoids by viewing our educational blogs.